The Great Hidden Risk.


  • Faaiz Ali Shah Associate Professor Orthopaedics Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar


Fluoroscopy or C-arm imaging is frequently used in Orthopaedic surgery and  Orthopaedic surgeons are exposed to excessive ionizing radiation and they can be considered as high risk health care workers for occupational radiation exposure.1 This radiation exposure is an additional occupational hazard besides other risks of surgery because Orthopaedic surgeons are not classified radiation workers.2 Unfortunately majority of Orthopaedic surgeons lack the awareness and are less sensitive to radiation hazards because the effects of excessive radiation are manifested overs months or years and are not immediately manifested or observed.3 The C-arm fluoroscopy emits x-ray radiation which produces free radicals due to ionizing effects  which lead to direct DNA damage, cell death and biological damage.4


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How to Cite

Faaiz Ali Shah. (2022). The Great Hidden Risk. Journal of Pakistan Orthopaedic Association, 34(04), 131–133. Retrieved from