Disaster Emergency Management Training: Preparedness (Knowledge and Attitude) of Health Professionals of Developing Country “Where Do We Stand?”
Objective Disasters are the overwhelming events on the communities which are seen increasing around the world. and emergencies have been increasing all over the world. Since medical professionals are the frontliner in the emergencies and disasters, knowledge and training of disaster management of these individuals is a basic need to cope with these conditions. The study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and training in emergency and disaster preparedness among health professionals of Pakistan.
Method: Cross-sectional study carried out using self-reported online and paper surveys. In total 750 health professionals responded. The Chi-Square test was used to identify any significant difference in the knowledge and attitude among the professional categories.
Result: The overall knowledge status of health professionals showed of all respondents, 35.06% had good knowledge, 47.06% had fair and 17.86% exhibited poor knowledge. Postgraduate were more knowledgeable than graduates. Doctors were better in knowledge than other subgroups of health specialties. Health administrators seemed insufficiently qualified in emergency and disaster planning. With respect to attitude assessment, majority of study respondents appeared in the ‘positive attitudes’ level to emergency and disaster preparedness. Of all respondents, 45.73% received no courses in disaster preparedness. 60.93% of all respondents had not participated in any exercise indisaster emergency preparedness.
Conclusion: This study shows considerable number of emergency health professionals found deficient in knowledge, with limited opportunities for training despite their beliefs towards disaster emergency management. There was a gross lack of formal teaching and training programs in emergency and disaster medicine. So, for the medical personnel,disaster emergency preparedness training/course should be necessary and efforts should be done to incorporate such courses and training in the curricula of health institutes at undergraduate and post graduate level. Long-term formal training such as undergraduate and postgraduate programs is necessary.
Makwana N. Disaster and its impact on mental health: A narrative review. J Family Med Prim Care. 2019 Oct 31;8(10):3090-3095.
Markenson D, DiMaggio C, Redlener I. Preparing health professions students for terrorism, 265 disaster, and public health emergencies: core competencies. Academic Medicine. 2005 Jun 266 1;80(6):517-26.
Rafiq L, Blaschke T. Disaster risk and vulnerability in Pakistan at a district level. Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk. 2012 Nov 1;3(4):324-41.
The World Bank. Disaster Risk Management in South Asia: A Regional Overview. Washington, DC: The World Bank; 2012 (http:// documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/648281468170977802/Disaster-risk-management-in-South-Asia-regional-overview).
Disaster Risk Reduction in Pakistan Status Report 2019
Pietrzak RH, Tracy M, Galea S, Kilpatrick DG, Ruggiero KJ, Hamblen JL, Southwick SM, Norris FH. Resilience in the face of disaster: prevalence and longitudinal course of mental disorders following hurricane Ike. PLoS One. 2012;7(6):e38964. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038964. Epub 2012 Jun 26.
Raftery KA. Emergency medicine in southern Pakistan. Ann Emerg Med. 1996 Jan;27(1):79-83..
Muzzamil M, Minhas MS, Khan AS, Effendi J, Minhas MO, Jabbar S. Onsite triage, pre-hospital management and effective hospital transportation “where do we stand?” J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2021;33(Suppl. 1):790–5.Ingrassia PL, Foletti M, Djalali A, Scarone P, Ragazzoni L, Corte FD, Kaptan K, Lupescu O, Arculeo C, von Arnim G, Friedl T, Ashkenazi M, Heselmann D, Hreckovski B, Khorram-Manesh A, Komadina R, Lechner K, Patru C, Burkle FM, Fisher P. Education and training initiatives for crisis management in the European Union: a web-based analysis of available programs. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014 Apr;29(2):115-26.
You C, Chen X, Yao L. How China responded to the May 2008 earthquake during the emergency and rescue period. J Public Health Policy. 2009 Dec;30(4):379-93; discussion 393-4.
Goniewicz K, Goniewicz M. Disaster preparedness and professional competence among healthcare providers: pilot study results. Sustainability. 2020 Jan;12(12):4931.
Shahbaz S. Disaster preparedness and management in Pakistan: a systematic review. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine. 2019 May;34(s1):s122-.
Naser WN, Saleem HB. Emergency and disaster management training; knowledge and attitude of Yemeni health professionals-a cross-sectional study. BMC emergency medicine. 2018 Dec;18(1):1-2.
Adenekan BA, Balogun MR, Inem V. Knowledge, attitude, and practices of emergency health workers toward emergency preparedness and management in two hospitals in Lagos. J Clin Sci. 2016;13:23–8.
Kiongo J. Disaster preparedness among members of staff at Kenyatta national hospital, Nairobi County, Kenya. 2015.
Nofal A, Alfayyad I, Khan A, Al Aseri Z, Abu-Shaheen A. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of emergency department staff towards disaster and emergency preparedness at tertiary health care hospital in central Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J. 2018 Nov;39(11):1123-1129.
Ahayalimudin N, Ismail A, Saiboon IM. Disaster management: a study on knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency nurse and community health nurse. BMC Public Health. 2012;12(Suppl 2):A3.
Alzahrani F, Kyratsis Y. Emergency nurse disaster preparedness during mass gatherings: a cross-sectional survey of emergency nurses' perceptions in hospitals in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. BMJ Open. 2017 Apr 11;7(4):e013563.
Su T, Han X, Chen F, Du Y, Zhang H, Yin J, Tan X, Chang W, Ding Y, Han Y, Cao G. Knowledge levels and training needs of disaster medicine among health professionals, medical students, and local residents in Shanghai, China. PLoS One. 2013 Jun 24;8(6):e67041.
Muzzammil M, Minhas MS, Ramzan Ali SAA, Jooma R, Minhas MO, Jabbar S. Primary trauma care course: Alternative basic trauma course in developing countries. "The Need Of The Hour". Int J Clin Pract. 2021 Aug;75(8):e14327.
Moabi R. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of health care workers regarding disaster preparedness at Johannesburg hospital in Gauteng province, South Africa. Nov. 25, 2008.
Ali M Q, Muzzammil M, Batool Z, Minhas M S. Triage in Mass Casualty Incidents: Our Preparedness and Response – A Cross-sectional Study from a Tertiary Care Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. Trauma International 2018 Sep-Dec;4(3):6-10.
Muzzammil M, Minhas M S, Khan A S, Effendi J, Minhas O, Jabbar S. Onsite Triage, Pre-Hospital Management and Effective Hospital Transportation. “Where do we stand?” J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2021;29(2)
Peleg K, Michaelson M, Shapira SC, Aharonson-Daniel L. Principles of emergency management in disasters. Adv Ren Replace Ther. 2003 Apr;10(2):117-21.
Zhang Z, Wang W, Shi Z, Wang L, Zhang J. Mental health problems among the survivors in the hard-hit areas of the Yushu earthquake. PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e46449. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046449. Epub 2012 Oct 8